What was Paul thinking when he wrote 1 Timothy 2:12?

“I do not permit me a woman to teach or have authority over a man. She must be silent.”

What is one to do with this Bible verse from Paul’s letter to Timothy?!

Here’s how I address it in my book Communicate to Change Lives.

Take the common meaning in the original languages

Words change over the years. Right now I would be terribly misunderstood if I said, “I’m feeling very gay today.” Fifty years ago, it would have meant I was happy, joyous. In 2007 it means something very different. If I say, “That’s a really bad car,” I’m not saying it needs to be recalled for safety concerns. It’s a really cool car (which doesn’t refer to temperature at this time.) All these examples have the shelf-life of milk!

It’s the same with Scripture written thousands of years ago. Let’s take an often misinterpreted verse:

“I do not permit a woman to teach or have authority over a man; she must be silent” (1 Tim. 2:12).

In 60 A.D. the word translated “authority” from the Greek actually had multiple meanings (and since this is the only time the word is used in the New Testament, it’s impossible to determine how Paul used it from other contexts.)

Scott Baldwin, popular author on women’s issues, notes several possible translations: to control, to dominate, to compel, to influence someone/thing, to domineer/play the tyrant, to grant authorization, to act independently, to assume authority over, to exercise one’s own jurisdiction, to flout the authority of, to commit murder. He concludes the most likely translation is “to have authority over” or “to domineer.”

Catherine Kroeger, a Greek scholar and founder of Christians for Biblical Equality, argued that authenteo is an erotic term best translated “to engage in fertility practices.” She later changed her interpretation to mean “proclaim oneself author of a man” in response to “a Gnostic notion of Eve as creator of Adam” (2 Tim. 2:13). Dr. Kroeger also notes that the word, used at the time in court briefs, refers to “self murder” or suicide. L. E. Wilshire studied 314 references to authenteo and concluded it originally was connected with murder and suicide, but later to “broader concept of criminal behavior.”

Thus, those supportive of women in ministry, interpret it to mean to “dominate” which Paul strictly forbids since men and women are to be viewed as equals (Gal. 3:28) and submit to one another (Eph. 5:21). Fundamentalists interpret the word to denote a hierarchy; women must not be in a supervisory role over men. (However the word didn’t mean hierarchy until 300 AD.)

The best we can conclude is that there is no precise definition for the word.

Take the cultural context of the passage

In that culture, women were not allowed a formal education, so virtually all women in Ephesus at that time were illiterate. This, of course, made being a woman teacher a bit difficult!

Melanie Kierstead, of Asbury College, also argues that Paul wrote the controversial passage to address the matriarchal culture of Asia Minor, and particularly Ephesus, where the gods were all women and the human men were ceremonially castrated. Thus, these are specific instructions for a specific people (those in the Ephesus church) at a specific time (first century) in a particular place (Asia Minor where the temple of Dianna, goddess worship, and matriarchal dominance were). Other scholars, however, believe temple prostitution was no longer practiced in 60 A.D. Ephesis.

Take the broadest, most documented position

If you have a church filled illiterate women who are recent converts from goddess worship (or ex-temple prostitutes), 1 Timothy 1:12 is wise advice for that church at that time.

But if you look at the entire Bible’s view of women, you see many leaders and teachers: prophets (Miriam, Deborah, Huldah, Isaiah’s wife, Philipp’s four daughters), military leader and judge (Deborah), disciples (Mary, Martha, Joanna, Mary Magdalene, Susanna, and “many more”), deacon (Priscilla), and church leader (Lydia).

Then you have to deal with Acts 2:1718 which is a fulfillment of Joel’s prophecy “your sons and daughters will prophecy.”

Following these three principles will clear up many apparent “contradictions.”

Copyright © 2007 James N. Watkins. All rights reserved.

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A case for women in ministry
What does the Bible really say?

64 Responses

  • Michelle Gerson says:

    Thank you for these explanations on Paul’s letter to 1 Timothy 1:12 and your obvious conclusions in the paragraph ‘broadest most documented position”.
    I was rebuked today by a man who is a good non religious christian whith whom I agreed on all points except one: I told him that Jesus’s language in his days was Aramaic and told him that certain passages in Old and New Testament were written in Hebrew- Aramaic. When I proved to him that Josephus confirmed this, he quoted 1 Timothy 1:12 that women should remain silent. I knew the scripture, but not having the details you are giving above, I had to agree with him, only being able to quote that Mary Magdalene was also a woman who followed Christ, to which he added that she did not have a speaking ministry.
    I am sending this person your page and others which I have gathered for him to read and learn from…. a man.

    • jameswatkins says:

      Thanks for your comment. It must be trying to be a smart woman rebuked by dumb men. (My wife is an ordained minister, so I’m especially passionate about this subject.)

      • Michael says:

        some men are dumb when they do not open up their eyes and understanding…women are not to be pastors or bishops or have authority over the Man…go back and re-read the Bible again…their is order in the Church, just like order in the Court….the bailiffs can’t do the Judges job and over rule him…nor can the Woman be over the Man in the Church. There is a lot of weak minded Men without any back bone to stand on the truth.

      • Karen says:

        God bless you!

      • BYAMUKAMA WILSON says:

        Religions that do no follow the word of Jehovah as it is and begin to interpret it to suit them are what the bible refers to as Babylon the great. These religions are very rich and teach through influence and money but not the true word of God. Do you think Apostle Paul wrote that word on his own or was inspired by Jehovah? People should remember what happened to Lot’s wife when he was just told not to look behind and she did. The bible is the word of God and should not be made to suit ones interest but should be told to people as it is.

  • Clint says:

    Wow. The stupidity is strong here. If this is the ridiculous argument you are going to use to defend this immoral book/passage, then, applying the rule to the entire bible…. Why beleive any of it. It could mean anything in the ‘old lanuage’. It’s not the only time this word exists in the shitty book. Then you have the problem with EVERY OTHER WORD possibly meaning something else. Cherry picking and strawman at its best. What about slavery, genocide, ethnic clensing, rape, murder, ritua lhuman sacrifice and the rest of it. Translate those words MF.

    • Thanks for your comment. My entire point is to not “cherry pick” passages and to carefully examine every word to make sure it’s the definition intended by the original author. I would encourage you—before labeling Scripture as “immoral”—to read the Gospel of Matthew (first book in the New Testament). Jesus was the most “moral” and loving person to have ever lived and he is the antithesis of the issues you’ve noted. Dare to read Jesus’ words objectively.

    • Revoked says:

      Like he literally left out Timothy 2:15 where it says she is to be saved through childbearing if they continue in faith-“ he’s deliberately ignoring context for the sake of this argument

  • Aron says:

    If one part is wrong then all of it is wrong….

    • completely not buying it says:

      for he so loved the world he gave his only begotten son ..etc etc yada yada. but god,knowing the future and thats his kid would be right as rain in 3 days kknda takes the ole lacquer shine off of thst supposed good deed. the bible has TEN good amd memorable passages . the commandments.period .the rest is as believable and emulatable as the rituals of santa claus

    • Matt says:

      So the women prophesying now means the same thing as teaching and exercising authority over men? Deborah sat under a palm tree and people approached her of their own will for prophetic judgement. She was not a ruler, king, or priest. There were 0 priestesses and 0 queens in Israel.

      As a Christian I agree with non-believer’s assesment of this type of cherry picking approach with word meanings. It undermines the the whole book and renders it useless to anyone. Why not just believe the Scripture means what it says. Unbelievers might actually respect you for not being a coward about it at least.

      • Thanks for your comment, Matt.

        The Hebrew word for prophet is nabi and means “one who announces or pours forth the declarations of God.” The Greek word prophetes which means “one who speaks for another, such as a spokesperson, especially one who speaks for God.” So, it does means preaching and teaching. The women prophets are called prophēteúō in the New Testament, which is the same word used for male prophets. “Prophetess” is not in the original language.

        If by “the Scripture means what it says” you mean we must take every word literally, then “women must be silent” would prohibit women working in the church nursery, teaching a children Sunday school class or sharing in discussion in a Bible study, and never singing in the choir or pew.

        This is why looking at Scripture through the lens of the original languages, context and culture is so important. It is not “being a coward,” but respecting God’s Word by wanting to know what he truly wanted us to know and do.

  • RR says:

    Any theological excuses for the writer of this passage is futile. The subsequent verses prohibit these excuses entirely because the writer has already given you and all readers the reason why this particular passage will stand for all time and in all circumstances of Christianity (Verses 13 – 15) –> A woman[a] should learn in quietness and full submission. 12 I do not permit a woman to teach or to assume authority over a man;[b] she must be quiet. 13 For Adam was formed first, then Eve. 14 And Adam was not the one deceived; it was the woman who was deceived and became a sinner. 15 But women[c] will be saved through childbearing—if they continue in faith, love and holiness with propriety.

    Literally, absolutely, and clearly in all instances, female self-advocacy in the church is barred. Why? Because Adam was born first and then Eve AND (he’s not done) because Eve was an idiot but Adam was not. I just have a lot of trouble taking in any excuses for Paul because he has already told you the theological basis for why women cannot even speak. I know the case for Biblical truth is strong and we want to believe the Bible in its entirely. In order to do so, we also have to completely ignore the obvious. And the obvious is pretty hard to ignore. Simply taking Paul for face value is the only true way to take on and challenge this rubbish and damning writing on women.

    Challenge Paul himself: 1) Christ did not write this, 2) Christ did not inspire this, 3) this is Greek cultural infusion as Greeks believed women to be snakes and untrustworthy sexual predators at their core. It’s easier for me to believe this passage was added to the scripture for case of empire (RCC) or some other direct attack on women because women were already a power force for the gospel: Priscilla and Aquila were actual pastors and founders of the early church in Cypress (not simply godly women as Paul described them – historical evidence has proven this). Christ chose to appear first to Mary Magdalene not the apostles to establish women as equals in him (and to combat misogyny as Magdalene was dubbed a liar when she gave her testimony on seeing Jesus in heavenly form). The prophet who identified Christ as the messiah in the first place was a female waiting for his arrival. We should fight false doctrine head on, not make theological excuses for it. Paul claimed himself to be a servant of Christ, in that he was honest. He was delusional if he believed all that he wrote was inspired by Christ and the Holy Spirit.

  • jesusdeepinsideme says:

    Mmm-Mm-Mmm Yes! What are we to do! Goodness, hate it when the good ol’ bible makes it a bit hard for us believers to stand firm on sane foundations! But thank the Lord for followers like yourself and Scott Baldwin, who gracefully sweep the bigotry and sexsim and racisim and all around ignorance, of the bible under the rug by saying the most intelligent sentences like ‘words just sure don’t mean what they did back then, now!’ Boy oh boy are you right! ‘They must be silent’ Probably just meant they must be silent when they talk about getting jobs or or running for congress or even worse president! Or what they have to say about their own vaginas, or how many organic ingredients are in their lunch or about their revelation during hot yoga or about who out of their friends are in a fight that particular week, am I right! Darn females never shut up about that gossip! Boy do they love it, and boy do we love them! Especially when they’re not trying to control or gain authority of the household and us men, the real authorizers. So glad we have u fellow god fearing men here, to ease our minds that we aren’t blindly following such hateful sexist people. But be careful what you say how phrases change over time! Especially about feeling gay! Wouldn’t want people to think that being gay is now, thousands of years later, seen as something natural and okay! That sure hasn’t change! Right? Oh god, it couldn’t right? Haha yeah, definitely not! Could you imagine?! I can’t and wouldn’t want too either! Well anyway have a blessed day!

    • Selina Li says:

      Ha Ha Im a woman & couldnt agree with you more.The problem with the church today is time wasting on talking nonsense rather than building up Godly men.Its the Godly men that will change the family & social crisis we see today.

  • Eileen Hines says:

    I Thank you for researching this much misunderstood verse. A little light goes a long way. Our people grew up and still do on figures of speech. Its a good thing to be able to know figures of speech to further one’s understanding of The Word Of God. Anyway, just passing through, and wanted to let you know the research was helpful.

  • Tash says:

    Thanks for this writing. Was brave of you to write on such a controvertial topic. I appreciate it. God bless

  • Josephine Harris says:

    We all have to be carefull and not lean on our own understanding Proverbs 3:5,all scriptures are inspired of GOD for our instruction and to set all things straight 2Timothy3:16.

    • I don’t mean to be argumentative, but is this passage inspired of God?

      “A feast is made for laughter, wine makes life merry, and money is the answer for everything” (Ecclesiastes 10:19).

      No! We’re reading the spiritual journal of man who is trying to find meaning in life. If Solomon is the author, then it’s also the writing of a man who would turn from God and build altars to his hundreds of foreign wives’ gods. The book as a whole is certainly instructive. This attitude will lead to spiritual ruin.

  • Crankypants says:

    For me, Paul is writing a letter to Timothy and expressing his ideas like a pastor on a Sunday morning expressing his ideas. No one knows if Timothy carried out these ideas. In fact no ones knows the context in which the letter was written.

    We are to follow the teachings of Jesus. Paul, as an apostle, was to spread these teachings. I am not sure but what some of Paul’s letters expressed his ideas rather than what Jesus would have taught. Again, who knows. We were not there.

    In the New Testament, Jesus tells us how we are to live. In Matthew 22: 37-41 Jesus specifically commands us to LOVE. You love God first others second and yourself last. All the law and prophets hang on this.

  • Lindsey Jordan says:

    This is nothing but satan that is allowing you ppl to change God’s Word. All of your eyes are shut closed you are in darkness. Rebuke the devil and you will be set free, Paul is clearly saying “FOR A WOMAN TO BE SILENT IN THE CHURCH.” Point blank period stop changing God’s word just to fit your life. Yes it was female followers of Christ but did they usurp authority over a man. A woman is simply not suppose to be over a man, in no way shape or form. Especially in the church. A women is to come to her husband for answers not the husband coming to her. This world is twisted. This same behavior is what’s going to cause alot ppl who think they’re going to heaven, to get sent straight to eternal damnation. I will keep you all in my prayers. Study to show thyself approved.

    • Steve says:

      Lindsey you are teaching men here. In so doing you are contradicting yourself and your God. Tisk tisk.

      Note that the Greek word “silent” is elsewhere translated “quiet” (2 Thess 3). You would dwell to study Greek if you are going to be so uptight about accurate rendering of the text. Additionally, the Bible is clear neither women NOR men are to have authority over one another, but are to mutually submit (Ephesians 5, Galatians 3) (all Paul’s letters, like Timothy!)
      God’s word is living and active, which means it changes and adapts. This is good. Things that don’t adapt, die. As always, our Law is love….which by the way illiterate people can even obey. That is, put your poorly understood Bible down and go be good to people. Jesus said this is the Law and Prophets anyway! (Matt 7). This love and goodness to people is how men and women preach the gospel with their lives, which isn’t either gender’s exclusive business.

      • Good point, Steve. Yes, she was certainly trying to “school” me. Those who try to take the Bible literally, without considering the language, the context and the Bible’s overall teaching, paint themselves into a corner of contradicting their own literal teaching. That said, “All Scripture is inspired by God and is useful to teach us what is true and to make us realize what is wrong in our lives. It corrects us when we are wrong and teaches us to do what is right” (2 Timothy 3:16). I think I’m showing the utmost respect for God’s Word by trying to study what he really meant in the text.

      • Julia says:

        God’s word never changes. We should never change it or adapt. Many women had many important ministries then and now, but, the word says that Eve was easily tempted and sinned first not Adam. God’s message spoken to Paul therefore was that Women should not teach men from the pulpit. Men and women can be subject to one another all day but she may not lead men as a pastor in the church….

    • Ola Chris says:

      Thank you for sticking to the scripture. No editing!

    • Manny says:

      Sorry Lindsey, based on your name I cant tell whether you are man or women and so, I would love to take your advice, but keeping true to the WORD, I’ll have to dismiss you and ask you to keep silent… So sayeth the Lord… God bless
      Unless you are a man of course, and then as a man, I’ll give it some consideration… SMH

  • X says:

    What a crock of shit… can’t pick and choose which to take literally and which to put off to word changing meanings… and there isn’t any writings of Jesus for centuries and these “biblical scholars” know what Jesus and apostles said, when there is no evidence that they ever lived…

    • Actually, there is plenty of secular, historical evidence (ie. Josephus) to support Jesus and his disciples. And there are more accurate manuscripts of biblical writing than Shakespeare. I triple-dog dare you to investigate it.

  • Just Saying says:

    “The best we can conclude is that there is no precise definition for the word.”
    James, you’re a pathetic cretin.

  • Belle says:

    Doesn’t the next chapter of 1 Timothy talk about the requirements for a person to become an overseer? The same chapter that says only the men can be overseers is also written to the same group of people where the women were illiterate, which makes sense. I still don’t understand why a woman in this chapter couldn’t have been a deaconess though?

  • Where are the clear answers says:

    I am trying to gain an understanding of these verses in 1 Timothy 2, as my husband and I have been called into ministry. We both will have equal speaking parts as we agree we are equals, but at the same time we believe he is my covering and other men are not to subject themselves over me as I am the wife of my husband not them. We both want to be able to stand firm of our beliefs on this verse and others. We need a firm foundation. As I was reading this, I was wondering if it was a misinterpretation. I have read several articles lately disputing some translation issues in the word of God. Is this one of those times? Are there exceptions to the rule? Is this even a rule since Paul’s states “I do not permit” which suggest more of a personal conviction instead of a biblical rule. Thank you for your input on this verse. Oh yeah, you have some typos in your article and the verse is written wrong as well,

    • First, I am so glad to hear that you and your husband are ministering with “equal speaking parts as we agree we are equal.” My wife and I served a church as co-pastors for eight years and another eight with her as senior pastor and me as an associate so I could devote more time to writing and speaking. I pray for God to bless your ministry. And your church will be blessed to hear God’s truth from the perspective of two genders. (After all, God created humans in his image: both male and female aspects!)

      Second, you can find a fuller teaching on women’s place in ministry at “A Case for Women in Ministry.” I hope you find that helpful. It addresses your specific questions. You can also find a post on interpreting those “difficult” passages at “What Does the Bible Really Say?” I hope those are helpful.

      And the Scripture is correct. It’s from the New Living Translation. I’ll look for those pesky typos.

  • Zichil Dan Condiman says:

    Are you not bieng biass, interpreting the passage, your wife is your senior pastor. First of all Pual already give his reason why he will not permit woman to teach or have authority over man, in verses 13 and 14. It is clear that, it is not about cultural or educational essue, its about the culture of God, that cannot be change. Second is that you surely know that God is a God of Order. He puts everything in order. First he put order in His Temple that only the tribes of Livites minister as preist, are all the tribes of Jacob equal in site of God? Yet only the tribe of Livites can minister. Yet some king of Israel question God about this ordinance, and try to offer sucrifies by his own, and was punish. Thirdly God put an order to structure a family, and this cannot be enterchange, the husband must head, and wife must submit. Fourth is the women in the Bible ministered as phropetess is not an essue, everybody can phropesy, but being a phropet is not having authority, conceder Meriam questioning Moses, i think you know what happen next. The phropets speak the Word of God, never authoritative over to whom they adress it, in some cases they run for thier life after they speak the Word. I have all the respect of all the women ministered in the Church and they are realy of good help and value on running the church. But it is a direct disorder of a Church to have a woman occupying pastor or elders office. This is a Church establish by Jesus Himself, and establish its rules, policies and structure. The office of the pastors/elders must be occupied by a men only.

  • Joseph E Knopick says:

    James, can you post your citations?

    • Thanks for your comment, Joseph. I didn’t want the post to look like a research paper, so I intentionally didn’t use footnotes.

      Here’s a good overview on the three meanings of the Greek word for authority by Henry Scott Baldwin.

      And this indepth study of the Greek word for authority by Catherine Kroeger.

      I’m sorry but I can’t find Melanie Kierstead’s excellent article online. It originally appeared as a print article.

  • Robert says:

    I grew in a Christian town and I’ve always thought why isn’t this logical or why does somebody have to read the Bible and say what it “actually” means. 35 years after I don’t believe in anything that the Bible says. It’s a book filled with bad information and people try to read only the New Testament but in the Old Testament there is a part where it’s the actual God saying that you can’t obey just part of it, you have to do everything. If we would do what it says, we would end up in jail the first day. The reason why we don’t obey it anymore is education. It’s not a coincidence that the best places to live are non religious and more educated. And those places are not in America. Do you know that there is a country where it’s prohibited by law to teach religion before they are 21 years old and statistically it’s one of the countries where people live happier lives in the world? It’s not a coincidence. Instead of trying to save the Bible we should try to think of better ways to educate our children.

    • Thanks for your comment.

      Jesus, God the Son, teaches that he came to obey every part of the Law’s requirements to satisfy the Old Testament’s requirements. Both Jesus and the apostle Paul teach that we are now freed from the rigid requirements and now have only one law: Love God completely, love your neighbor as yourself. “If you love your neighbor, you will fulfill the requirements of God’s law” (Romans 13:8).

      I’m embarrassed to admit that many so-called “Christians” are hateful, judgmental and prejudiced. But that is not God’s intention! St. John writes, “Dear friends, let us continue to love one another, for love comes from God. Anyone who loves is a child of God and knows God. But anyone who does not love does not know God, for God is love. God showed how much he loved us by sending his one and only Son into the world so that we might have eternal life through him. This is real love—not that we loved God, but that he loved us and sent his Son as a sacrifice to take away our sins (1 John 4:7-10).

      I do pray that God brings a true follower of Jesus into your life, so you can see the true picture of God an his love.

  • Njinkeng Vera says:

    Thanks for clarifying, it speaks to me directly. May the good Lord continue to use you to throw more light to scriptures.

  • Jim says:

    It’s a from a book written in the Iron Age. Are people still following this crap?

  • DiRT says:

    It’s called “complementarianism.” A little more research would’ve gone a long way towards your understanding of this difficult passage. The eisegesis of trimming out this one passage from the section and adding your own spin to it isn’t really helpful. It might make Joel Olsteen and Joyce Meyers a lot of money, but we should try to do better.

    • Thanks for your comment. Actually, I would be an “egalitarian” which is embraced by Christians for Biblical Equality and several denominations including mine and is supported by exogesis. A slight difference, so I’m really not trying to start an argument.

  • Rome says:

    Hi! I preach God’s word to the children, teach Bible studies to youths and adults, i teach in Sunday School.
    And i never felt being condemned by God in doing so instead, it gives happiness to my soul.

    All of us, saved by God, commanded us to preach the Gospel, regardless of our biological status.

    Paul just points that in the church, at home, and in other human institution, it is really men who have the authority and women are to submit and to be deligent and attentive listener when the man is preaching or teaching.

    I also believe that pastors are teaching his wife how to work in the ministry and that includes teaching. It is very hard for the pastor to reach every church person.

    Woman is a helpmeet of man, it is declared upon her creation.

    If the teaching and preaching of a woman will help to carry the Gospel to the whole world, there’s no problem with it. In fact, God is glorified.

    A woman full of the Holy Ghost could not remain silent. There’s a burning passion in her heart to be sent and reach the people with the Gospel.

  • Lisa says:

    Well this passage, taken literally, is helpful to me because my husband (not myself) is a SDA. In general, I find then to be slightly misogynistic, yet they believe in the infallible writings of Ellen White.

  • Jordan Marais says:

    When the Bible talks about a woman not being permitted to teach, it talks about teaching in the context of having authority over a man when you read on: “And I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man” We see examples of women preaching and sharing the gospel throughout the Bible (the woman at the well for example) This scripture simply means a woman mustn’t be in the position of a bishop because Paul goes on to speak about the role of a bishop in chapter 3 and it talks about how a bishop must “be the husband of one wife” Woman can preach, in fact they are commanded to do so, but they cannot have authority over a man, in other words be a church elder. Correct me if I’m wrong.

  • Diesel Covey says:

    Thanks this helped me and my friend a lot! ❤️❤️❤️❤️❤️ May God, Jesus, and Everyone Else In Heaven bless you!

  • Sam Rosenbalm says:

    Very disingenuous to try to ascribe Paul’s motives to the widespread lack of education of women, when he gives the reason himself… It wasn’t because women weren’t educated, it’s because Eve was deceived first. And that’s true. Men and women are not the same. Women are emotional beings, who by and large, need a man as a covering. This is the way God designed it. Christ is the head of the church, man is the head of the woman. Homosexuality is also an abomination, and yet people use very similar sounding appeals, and do a very similar style of mental gymnastics and eisegesis that feminists engage in when studying the Bible. The word of God is true and you do not preach it correctly.

    • Emman Andrei says:

      Eve was deceived first? Correct but if you committed a sin, time does not matter. A sin is a sin period. Adam getting deceived at a later time does NOT make him righteous. You have to remember that this is written by human beings so it is subject to biases. If you still do not understand, learn linguistics. Language is dynamic, you know.

  • Meme says:

    This is a just a horrible excuse. All Abrahamic religions have the same source. Similar things exist in Islam and Judaism too. Men are first degree citizens of the earth and women are second degree. This is how it’s, no matter how hard all religious people are trying to explain it, it’s just a horrible fact!

    • I would ask, have you actually read the NEW Testament? Christ and Paul taught against the oppressive Old Testament laws an patriarchal system. They declared women equal to men (Galatians 3:28), and Paul told husbands to make sure their wives sexual desires and needs were met (1 Corinthians 7:3). It was a huge change in the value and importance of women. Jesus came to change the system of Law and being about a system of love.

  • James Payne says:

    Thanks James for your insight. A couple more verses that may help your position: Galatians 3:28
    There is no longer Jew or Gentile, slave or free, male and female. For you are all one in Christ

    Aquilla and priscilla both taught a male evangelist. Acts 18:26 (ESV) – Acts 18:26
    He began to speak boldly in the synagogue, but when Priscilla and Aquila heard him, they took him aside and explained to him the way of God…

    Paul actually teaches women how to pray and prophecy. 1cor. 11:5 Why would he teach her if she is to be silent?

    Also the first preacher after the resurrection was Mary Magdalene. Go and proclaim the good news that Jesus has risen. She actually preached the good news to the apostles themselves. Matthew 28:1-10

    One of the commenters to your post made the statement that “women are not to preach from the pulpit.” Were there even pulpits in church of Corinth or Ephesus. I am thinking more of a house church.

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